Research on male GH has been going on for half a century. Androgens are studied both independently and in combination with progestogens, in various dosage forms (injections, oral medications, gels, implants). Non-hormonal methods of male contraception are also being studied, namely: reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG); intra-vas device (IVD); compounds that block certain proteins (Eppin, JQ1, BRDT-specific inhibitors), which causes temporary infertility.

Contraceptive vaccines have been developed since 1995 for both men and women. Contraceptive vaccines (antibodies to sperm/egg) counteract fertilization at several parts of the reproductive tract (gamete production, gamete release, gamete function).

Thus, the history, present, and future prospects of contraception demonstrate the rapid development of this field and a wide range of methods and means. Nevertheless, each of the available methods of preventing unwanted pregnancy has its advantages and disadvantages, meaning that the creation of the “perfect contraceptive” is still ahead. And the results of the survey of future pharmacists generally show a rather low level of their knowledge about contraception and contraceptives. Unfortunately, this indicates insufficient attention to such issues and a lack of reliable information, given the generally unlimited amount of information and wide access to it.